Women in Nahj al-Balaghah 2item What does Imam Ali (a) mean by the statement attributed to him in the Nahjul Balagha, which says: ‘Men are higher than women in terms of both intellect and emotions’? In regards to the words of Imam Ali (a) as recorded in the Nahjul Balagha, which considers women as being deficient in terms of faith and intellect, can prayer and fasting alone, be considered the criterion for measuring a person’s faith? Can we consider this so, when many men do not fulfill their obligations in this regard? What does Imam Ali (a) consider the essence of faith in this statement? I am curious as to how this is while women make up their days of fasting (which they could not perform due to the menstrual cycle) and not praying during that period is the command of Allah (swt) Himself. What is the description of intellect in Islam and can giving testimony be used alone as the criterion for measuring a woman’s intellect (or even for a general human being)? If what is meant is the emotions of women, then is this a reasonable way of judging her? In the Arabic original of this sermon, the word ‘Naqs’ has been used…please mention its various meanings and contextual uses. If Imam Ali (a) directed these words towards Ayesha, then why is it directed towards women in general?