Clothes of the Praying Person 14item If a praying person carries a handkerchief or something similar that is made najis by blood or has such things in his pocket, will his prayer be void? How much of the body a woman should be covered in prayer? Is there any problem with short-sleeved clothes and in not wearing socks? Does the rule relating to the correctness of prayer prayed with an extrinsically najis thing that is not enough to cover one’s private parts apply only to the cases of forgetting of, or ignorance of, the rule or the subject, or does it cover cases of ambiguity with respect to the case or to the rule? Does the existence of the hair or saliva of a cat on a person’s clothes cause his/her prayer to be invalid? A person used to perform his prayers for a period of time while wearing clothes made of the leather of an animal about which there was doubt as to whether it was ritually slaughtered and he did not know that it is not actually correct to perform prayers in such clothes. What should he do now? In general, what is the ruling on an animal about which there was doubt as to whether it was ritually slaughtered? A woman realizes during her prayer that some of her hair is unveiled and immediately covers it. Is it obligatory for her to repeat that prayer? Is it correct to perform prayer in clothes that are scented with modern perfumes containing alcohol? I purchased a leather belt from Germany. Is there any shar‘ī problem in performing prayers with it if I doubt whether it is made of natural or synthetic leather or whether the leather belongs to an animal that is slaughtered ritually? And what is the ruling with respect to the prayers that I performed while having the belt on? Due to urgency, a person is compelled to clean his urinary outlet using a piece of wood, stone or something else. Then he washes that part with water after returning home. Is it obligatory for him to change or purify his underwear in order to perform prayer? If someone is sure that there is no najis substance on his clothes or body and performs his prayer but realizes afterwards that his body or clothes were najis; is the prayer he performed invalid? What will be the ruling if he realizes this matter during his prayer? Is it obligatory to cover one’s chin completely when wearing ḥijāb and performing prayer or is it sufficient to cover the lower part of it? And is the obligation of veiling the chin a preliminary step for the obligatory face veil in shar‘? Is it obligatory for women to cover their feet during prayer? Will my prayer be invalid if I perform them in clothes that I doubt are najis? Some imported industrial machines are installed with the assistance of foreign experts who are considered, according to Islamic law, non-Muslims and najis. The activation of these machines is accomplished through their lubrication or other actions done by hand. Therefore, these machines cannot be pure. Given that workers’ clothes and bodies always touch these machines during the work, and they do not have enough time throughout working hours to purify their cloths and bodies completely, what is their duty with respect to performing prayer?