Rules of Breaking Fasting 6item When I was fasting, my mother forced me to eat and drink. Did it invalidate my fast? While going on a trip someone who is fasting breaks his fast before crossing the tarakhkhuṣ limit with the notion that he is a traveler, without knowing that he may break his fast before noon only when he has gone beyond the tarakhkhuṣ limit. What is the rule concerning his fast? Does he have to perform its qaḍā’ or is he liable to something else as well? I work in an iron ore mine and the nature of my work requires me to enter the mine daily. While working with mining equipment dust enters my mouth. This is my daily routine throughout the year. What is my duty? Is my fast valid? Is it permissible to follow Sunnīs in their timings for breaking the fast while one attends public or official gatherings and the like? What is one’s duty if s/he thinks that doing so cannot be counted as one of the instances of dissimulation and no compulsion is involved? If something is forced into the mouth of someone, or his head is forcibly submerged in water, does it invalidate the fast? If they are forced to break their fast, e.g. they are told you break your fast or you/your property will be harmed and they eat something in order to evade the danger, is their fast valid? While suffering from a cold, some mucus gathered in my mouth and I swallowed it instead of spitting it out. Was my fast valid? Also, once, staying for some days with one of my relatives during the blessed month of Ramadan, I had a cold and felt shy to perform ghusl of janābah, so I did tayammum instead and did not perform ghusl until some time before noon. This happened for several days. Were my fasts for those days valid? If not, do I have to pay the kaffārah as well?