Question
Salaam Please what is the history of saying "ash-hadu Aliyyyullah" in adhan and Ih ,with reannaAliyyanadhanIqaamahs, and was it a command from one of the ma'sumeen? Thank you.
Category: Jurisprudential Issues
Answer:
Salam alaikum There is no specific commandment for saying Ash’hadu anna Alian Waliullah (known as the Third Testimony) by an Infallible; however, there are numerous Shiah narratives which recommend us to say Ash’hadu anna Alian Waliullah after Ash’hadu an La Ilaha Illa Allah and Ash’hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulollah. There are two viewpoints by Shia Jurisprudents about saying Ash’hadu anna Alian Waliullah in Azan and Iqama: 1 - A group of Shiah Jurisprudents consider it as a part of Azan which is Mustahabb (religiously recommended or desirable - but not obligatory or Wajib). 2 - Some other Shiah Ulama or Jurisprudents consider it to be desirable (Mustahabb); however, they believe that it should be said without the intention of considering it ‘as a part of Azan’, that is, they believe that this phrase is not a part of Azan but it is religiously desirable to say it; such as Salawat (Allahumma Salli ala Muhammad wa Aal-e Muhammad) that is unanimously recommended by all Shiah scholars to be said when hearing the name of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (s.a.). Therefore, it is permissible and recommended to say the Third Testimony in Azan without considering it as a part of Azan; and this recommendation is based on two authentic sources: A: The Holy Quran Imam Ali (a.s.) is Waliullah (i.e. the Guardian appointed by Almighty Allah) according to an explicit verse in the Holy Quran: ﴿إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ ...﴾ (مائده: 55) “Your guardian (Wali) is only Allah and His Messenger and those who keep up prayers and pay Zakat to the poor while bowing before Allah …” (Verses 55-56 in Surah al-Maedah) All interpreters of the Holy Quran unanimously agree that the abovementioned verse was revealed to appreciate Imam Ali (a.s.) when a poor man entered the mosque and asked people to help him; at that time Imam Ali (a.s.) - while he was bowing down in his prayer - gave the poor man a hint to come near and take his ring. This verse proves that Imam Ali (a.s.) is the Wali and Guardian, as endorsed by Almighty Allah. B: Islamic narratives (Riwayat) Examples of narratives: 1 - فَإِذَا قَالَ أَحَدُكُمْ لا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ .. مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ … فَلْيَقُلْ عَلِيٌّ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عليه السلام Ref. ‘Al-Ihtijaj’ by Sheikh Tabarsi vol.1 p.158 & ‘Bihar al-Anwar’ by Allama Majlesi, vol. 81, p. 112 Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said: Whenever you testify that that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammad (s.a.) is the Messenger of Allah, then you should also testify that Ali (a.s.) is Amir-ul-Mo’menin or the Leader of Believers. 2 - وَ الَّذِي بَعَثَنِي بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيراً وَ [نَذِيراً] مَا اسْتَقَرَّ الْكُرْسِيُّ وَ الْعَرْشُ‏ وَ لا دَارُ الْفَلَكِ وَ لَا قَامَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَ الارَضُونَ‏ إِلا (بَعْدَ أَنْ) كَتَبَ‏ (اللَّهُ‏ عَلَيْهَا) لا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ عليٌ‏ وَلِيُ‏ الله Ref. ‘One Hundred Virtues of Imam Ali and Holy Imams (a.s.)’ by Ibne Shazan, Page 49 Ibn Abbas narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.) said: “I swear by Allah, Who sent me truthfully as a bearer of good news and a Warner, that the throne of the heavens (Arsh & Kursi) was not established and the skies did not start to move and the heavens and the earth were not set up but only after Almighty Allah wrote on them : There is no god but Allah; Mohammad (s.a.) is the Messenger of Allah, Ali (a.s.) is the Wali of Allah”. 3 - Imam Sadiq said: لَمَّا خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرْضَ أَمَرَ مُنَادِياً فَنَادَى: أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللهُ ثَلاثاً، وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ ثَلاثاً، وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَ‏ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ ثَلاثاًً Ref. ‘Hidayat-ul-Ummah ila Ahkam al-Aimmah (a.s.)’ by Sheikh Hurr Ameli When Allah created the heavens and the earth, He ordered a heavenly herald to cry three times: I testify that ‘there is no god but Allah’; ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’; and ‘Ali is Amir-ul-Mo’menin (the Leader of Believers). 4 - لو علم الناس متي سمّي علي أمير المؤمنين ما انکروا فضله، سمّي أمير المؤمنين وآدم بين الروح والجسد، قال الله تعالي: ﴿وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُواْ بَلَى﴾ (اعراف: 172) فقال: أنا ربّکم محمد نبيّکم علي أميرکم. Ref. Sharhe (Explication of) ‘ Ihqaq al-Haq’ by Ayatollah al-Najafi al-Marashy, vol. 3, p. 307 Huzaifah has narrated that the Holy Prophet of Islam (s.a) said: “If people knew the time when Ali was chosen as Amir-ul-Mo’menin (the Leader of Believers), they would not deny him.” Ali was nominated as Amir-ul-Mo’menin when Adam’s spirit had not yet entered his body. Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran: When your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their backs, their descendants; and made them bear witness against themselves: Am I not your Lord? They replied: Yes! We bear witness!” (Surah al-A’raaf: verse 172)… Then Allah said: I am your Lord; Muhammad is your prophet, and Ali is your Amir (Leader). 5 - MARAGHI, the Egyptian Sunni scholar, cites two narratives from Abuzar Ghifari and Salman Farsi in his book Al-Silafah fi Amr al-Khilafah as follows: A) أن رجلا دخل علي رسول الله (صلي الله عليه واله وسلم) وقال: يا رسول الله إنّ أباذر يذکر في الأذان بعد الشهادة بالرسالة الشهادة بالولاية لعلي عليه السلام. قال رسول اللّه صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم: کذلک؛ أوَ نسيتُم قولي في غدير خم: من کنتُ مولاه فَعَلِيٌّ مولاه Ref. ‘Mustadrak Safinatul-Bihar’, by Sheikh Ali Namazi Shahroudi, vol. 6, p. 85 A man came to the Messenger of Allah - peace and blessing of Allah be upon him and his infallible household - and said: “O Messenger of Allah! (I noticed that) Abuzar, while saying Azan, testified to the Wilayat of Ali after he testified that you are the Messenger of Allah.” The Holy Prophet said: “That’s it! Have you forgotten my words on the Day of Ghadeer when I said: Whoever I am his master, then Ali is his master”? B) دخل رجل علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم، فقال: يا رسول الله! إني سمعت أمراً لم أسمع قبل ذلک، فقال صلي الله عليه واله وسلم: ما هو؟ قال: سلمان قد يشهد في أذانه بعد الشهادة بالرسالة، الشهادة بالولاية لعلي (عليه السلام)، قال (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم): سمعت خيرا Ref. ‘Mustadrak Safinatul-Bihar’, by Sheikh Ali Namazi Shahroudi, vol. 6, p. 85 A man came to the Holy Prophet of Islam (s.a.) and said: O Messenger of Allah, I heard something I had never heard so far! The Messenger of Allah said: What is it? He replied: I heard that Salman testified to the Wilayat of Imam Ali in his Azan after testifying to your Risalat (Prophethood). The Holy Prophet (s.a.) said: You have heard a good thing!! 6- حضر جماعة من العرب و العجم و القبط و الحبشة عند رسول الله (صلَّي الله عليه و آله فقال لهم): أأقررتم بشهادة لا إله إلا الله و حده لا شريک له، و ان محمداً عبده و رسوله، و ان علي بن أبي طالب أمير المؤمنين و ولي الأمر بعدي؟ " قالوا: اللهم نعم، فکرره ثلاثاً و هم يشهدون علي ذلک Ref. AMALI of Sheikh al-Sadough, P. 465 The late Sheikh al-Sadough quotes: “A group of Arab and non-Arab people from Egypt, Ethiopia and other places came to the Holy Prophet of Islam (s.a.). The Holy Prophet asked them: Do you testify that there is no god but Allah, and there is no partner with Him, and Mohammad is His servant and messenger; and Ali ibn Abi-Talib is Amir-ul-Mo’menin and my successor? They replied: By Allah! Yes (We testify so). The Holy Prophet repeated this question three times and each time they testified to that. *************************** According to what we said above, although the Third Testimony in Azan and Iqama is not specifically legislated, this does not prove its impermissibility in general; because as we explained, there are numerous narratives which emphasize on the Third Testimony.

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