Question
To whom has the verse of Proclamation (Tabligh) been revealed?
Category: Occasion of Revelation
Answer:
The Exalted God has said in the verse 67 of “Ma’idah” Surah that, ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْکَ مِن رَّبِّکَ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللهُ يَعْصِمُکَ مِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْکَافِرِينَ﴾“o messenger, deliver what is sent down to you from your lord (to the people); if you do not, you will not have conveyed his message. Allah protects you from (the probable dangers of) the people. Allah does not guide the nation, the (obstinate) unbelievers”. In various books written by Sunni scholars; including explanatory, traditional and historical books, there are many narratives specifying that the mentioned tradition has been revealed in regard to Ali (a.s.). These narratives have been quoted by a large group of Companions such as Abu Said Khidri, Ibn ‘Abbas, Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah Ansari, Abu Hurayrah, Bara’ Ibn ‘Azib, Huzayfah, ‘Amir Ibn Layli Ibn Zumrah and Ibn Masud and they have said, “the tradition was revealed about Ali (a.s.) and the event of the day of Ghadir”. The Shia believe that the Prophet (s.a.) gathered the people in a place, named Ghadir Khum, delivered a long and aloud sermon, called them to witness , and they bore witness that the Prophet (s.a.) had more authority on them than they themselves have, then the Prophet (s.a.) raised Ali’s hand and said, “those whose leader (Mawla) I am, Ali will also be their leader, O God, love the lovers of him and be an enemy to his enemies, help the helpers of him and humiliate the one who forsakes Ali (a.s.), and make him the axis of the truth”. Then he put his own turban on Ali’s head and commanded his companions to congratulate Ali (a.s.) on his title -the commander of the believers (Amir al-Muminin)-, they did so, and Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were in front of them and told him, “O Abu Talib’s son, lucky you, you became leader (Mawla) of us and all believing men and women”. [1] The following verse was revealed after the end of the allegiance:﴿الْيَوْمَ أَکْمَلْتُ لَکُمْ دِينَکُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْکُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَکُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا﴾ [2]“this day I have perfected your religion for you and completed my favor to you. I have approved Islam to be your religion”. The Shia have belief in this matter and consider it as an absolute and deniable event. Many of the Sunni scholars have mentioned this event in detail; we mention some of them here: 1. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal has quoted from Zayd Ibn Arqam that he said, “we gathered together with the Prophet (s.a.) in a valley called Khum, then he ordered (the people) to perform the prayer, and we performed it with him in the midday, afterwards he delivered a sermon and while there was a cloth hanging from the tree for making a shadow for the Prophet (s.a.) to be saved from the burning sun, the Prophet (s.a.) said, “Don’t you know? Don’t you bear witness that I am more superior to each believer than what he is to himself?”, “yes, you are” they all answered, “those whose leader (Mawla) I am, Ali is also their leader, O God, love the lovers of him and be an enemy to his enemies”, the Prophet (s.a.) said. [3] 2. Imam Nisa’i has quoted from Zayd Ibn Arqam in Khasa’is book that he said, “ when the Prophet (s.a.) was returning from Haj al-Wida’ (his last pilgrimage), he stopped in Ghadir Khum and commanded us to gather near the trees, then he said, “I am going to accept God’s invitation (of death) soon and verily I am leaving two precious things among you, one of which is greater: God’s book and my household, so be careful about your behavior toward them and these two things will never separate until they encounter me at the pool of Kawthar (in the Day of Resurrection)”, then he said, “God is my leader (Mawla) and I am the leader of every believer”, then he raised Ali’s hand and said, “those whose leader (Mawla) I am, so this person will also be their leader, O God, love the lovers of him and be an enemy to his enemies”. [4] 3. Hakim Nishaburi has quoted through the two valid ways by Shaykhayn (Bukhari and Muslim) that he said, “when the Prophet (s.a.) returned from Haj al-Wida’, he stopped in Ghadir Khum and commanded (the people) to gather under the trees, then he said, “my God is going to invite me very soon, and I’m going to accept, verily I have left two precious things among you, one of them is greater than another: God’s book and my progeny, so be careful about behaving toward them after me, and verily they will never separate from each other until they reach me by the Pool”. Then he said, “the exalted God is my leader and I am the leader of every believer”, then he grasped Ali’s hand and said, “those whose leader I am, Ali will be their leader, O God, love the one accepting his leadership and be an enemy to his enemies”. [5] 4. Muslim has also mentioned this narrative in his Sahih with a document which leads to Zayd Ibn Arqam but he has condensed it. He has said, “one day when we were near a pond called “Khum”, which was between Mecca and Medina, the Prophet (s.a.) delivered a speech among us and after praising the Exalted God and advising (us), he said, “O people, behold, I am a person like you, the God’s messenger will come (to invite me to death) very soon and I am going to accept it, verily I am leaving two precious and great things among you, the first one is God’s book, in which there is light and guidance, so adhere to God’s book and take hold of it”, he encouraged (the people) a lot in God’s book, then said, “(the second one) is my household, I swear you by God that never forget my household; I swear you by God that never forget my household; I swear you by God that never disremember my household…” ”. [6] 5. Imam Ahmad has quoted from Bara’ Ibn ‘Azib with two documents that he said, “we were with the Prophet (s.a.) until we stopped in Ghadir Khum. It was time for prayer and we all raised for performing the prayer, a carpet was spread (over the ground) under two trees, then the Prophet (s.a.) performed noon prayer and put his hand in Ali’s and said, “Don’t you know that I am more superior to the believers than themselves?”, “yes, you are”, they answered, then he grasped Ali’s hand and said, “those whose leader I am, Ali will be their leader. O God, love the lovers of Ali and be an enemy to his enemies””. Bara’ said, “after that, ‘Umar came to Ali (a.s.) and told him that, “O Abu Talib’s son, lucky you, you became the leader of every believing man and woman”. [7] In a word, the tradition of Ghadir has been mentioned by many of other Sunni scholars -in addition to the above-mentioned ones- in their books such as: Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Ibn ‘Asakir, Ibn Na’im, Ibn Athir, Kharazmi, Siyuti, Ibn Hajar, Haythami, Ibn Sabagh Maliki, Qanduzi Hanafi, Ibn Maghazili, Ibn Kathir, Hamawayni, Haskani, Ghazali and Bukhari in his Tarikh, considering the differences of these people in their religions and branches, they have mentioned this tradition in their books during the first to the fourteenth century, and they are more than 340 scholars. [8]

Refrence:
[1] Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Vol. 4,p. 281, Tafsir Kabir Razi, Vol. 3, p. 636, Sawa’iq Ibn Hajar, Tafsir Tabari
[2] Quran, Al-Ma'idah, verse. 3.
[3] Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Vol. 4, p. 372
[4] Al-Khasa’il Nisa’I, p. 150
[5] Mustadrak Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 109
[6] Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, p. 1872, this narrative has also been quoted by Imam Ahmad, Tirmizi and Ibn ‘Asakir.
[7] Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Vol. 4, p. 281, Kanz al-‘Ummal, Vol. 13, p. 133, Faza’il al-Khamsah Min al-Sihah Sitah, Vol. 1, p. 350
[8] With the Truthful (people), p. 93
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