Is there any research institute or school or section or desk working on Ahmadi/Qadiani religion in Hawza 'Ilmiyya Qom? Beacuse we have very little knowledge regarding the work done against the preaching of Qadianis from Shia point of view.

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In His Name Salamu ‘Alaykum In answer to your question concerning Ahmadi/Qadiani sect, please note that AdyanwaMadhahib University of Quom conducts researches on the above mentioned issue. Below you will find the translation of parts of relevant articles: 1) Qadiyaniyyeh is the name of a sect Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani founded in India about a hundred years ago. He was the son of Mirza Ghulam Murtadha and was born in Qadian, then a village of about 1500 inhabitants, and a rural area of Gurdaspur, Punjab,(1) but now - following the partition of India - it is a part of India. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was interested in Islamic studies, and underwent severe asceticism. His father (d. 1876) was a skilful physician, who was on good terms with the British government. A better understanding of the course of the Qadiyaniyyeh thought and the changes it underwent is in need of a better understanding of the changes in India and Pakistan in the19th and 20th centuries. In the 19th century, India was under Britain domination and multitudes of Christian Missionaries used to enter India and propagateChristianity. In 1857 (C.E.) the general uprising of Indians in which the followers of other religions were beside Muslims, fighting against English colonialism, was heavily defeated. In this uprising, Ghulam Ahmad’s father was siding with England, helping them financially. This has been confirmed by Qadianis themselves.(2) Ghulam Ahmad Bashir spent time learning Islamic sciences, scientific debates, preaching people, logic, philosophy, religious and literary sciences from his instructors, and medicine from his father who was a skilful physician.(3) 2) Hindus, having been heavily defeated, began to rehabilitate their forces in order to revive Hindu rituals. At this time, Ghulam Ahmad felt that he was the one who could set Muslims free from the pain and agony of foreigners’ domination. Among his first efforts were the debates he had with Christians and Hindus and the challenges he conducted against their propaganda. On this occasion, he wrote his four-volume book Barahin-l Ahmadiyah (proofs of Ahmadiyah)- organized in one volume - proving the superiority of Islam, the miracle of the Qur’an, and the proof of Prophethood, nubuwwat, and the rejection of Christianity, Hindu and Brahma rituals. This book was published. In 1886, he engaged in debates with a certain Aryieh Samaj(4) and wrote a book in Urdu, titled Aryaii antimonite. These debates and books brought him fame. From this time on, Ghulam Ahmad’s different orientation in thought caused great future differences between Qadiyaniyyeh and Muslims: In 1889, he claimed that he was the divinely inspired 14th century, Renewer, Mujaddid, and that he was assigned to take allegiance, Bay’at, from people. Next, in 1891 C.E. he wrote the book, Nuzul al-Massih, in which he claimed that Jesus had survived crucifixion and run away from Palestine, come to India, and died at Srinagar at the age of 120. The grave that is known these days in Kashmir as Buzasf’s is Jesus’. Jesus did not ascend into the heaven, and there is no advent (return) for him. He (Ghulam Ahmad) is Christ’s mitheel (epiphany). In addition to introducing himself as the promised Jesus, Gholam Ahmad now considered himself the Muslim’s Promised Mahdi and summoned people (to believe his claim). In this period, he wrote many books in support of his claims until in 1902 he announced that God had appointed him a nabi Mursal, -a prophet sent by God, an envoy, but a non-law-bearing prophet «نبى غيرحامل الشريعة‏»، «النبى الظلى و المتجسد»، «محمد بصفة ظلية‏».(5) In 1904 he announced to be Uttar Krishna, and in 1908 he died at the age of 69. Some of his most important books include: izalah-Awham, Haqiqat al-Wahy, part five of Barahin-l Ahmadiyah, which he wrote in 1905 and named it Takmeleh of Barahin Ahmadiyah; Haqiqat al-Nubuwwah, Tajaliyyat al-Ilahiyyeh, ‘Ayn al-Ma’rifa, Taryaq al-Ghuloob, al-Harb al-Muqqadiseh, al-Durr-al-Thamin, al-Khutbih al-ilhamiyyeh, Nur al-Haq, Fath-e Islam, Khatim al-Nubuwwah, Qadiyani Madhab. 3) Ghulam Ahmad has written about 75 books, all of which have been printed. His lectures and letters were collected by his followers and printed, too. Ghulam Ahmad announced that Muslims are unbelievers, and ordered his followers to deal with them as is done with the People of the Book - Ahl al-Kitab: to marry Muslim women, but not wed their daughters to Muslims - a thought that was strictly applied in Qadiyanah branch of the sect. They consider Muslims unbelievers for not having belief in the prophethood of Ghulam Ahmad. 4) After Ghulam Ahmad died, the Ahmadiyya (Consultative) Council unanimously appointed Hakim Nur-ud-Din(6) Bhera in his place. We do not have much information about his activities during his leadership. In 1914, he died at the age of 73. At this time, the educated men of this sect had the expectation of having Muhammad ‘Ali(7), - the editor of Review of Qadiyaniyyeh Religions - as the Khalifa (successor), whereas the majority group of Qadian members demanded that Mirza Bashir al-Din Mahmood, the 25 year old son of Ghulam Ahmad, should become the leader. Mahmood Ahmad has explained the event in his book ‘An introduction to Qur’anic exegesis’ saying: “During the time of Nur-ul-Din, a group of the members leveled criticism at his leadership, and after his death, they made efforts to abolish the caliphate (organization) altogether. I was then 25 years of age. The executive branch of the Jama’at was being managed by the antagonists, but those in the majority burdened me with the responsibility, and I accepted it…. At that time, God revealed to me that He would assist me and would defeat my opponents. The educated, the experienced, the rich and the influential members of the Movement left, saying “the Movement, having come into the hands of a young and inexperienced person, will soon disintegrate….”(8) Mahmood Ahmad was the leader until 1965, that is, for fifty-one years, until he died at the age of seventy-six. Some of his most important books include: a seven volume Exegesis of the Qur’an and of Ahmadiyyeh book/ the real Islam, Da’wat al-Amir wa Haqiqat-ul-Nubuwway. Then his son, Mirza Nasir succeeded him, leading the sect until 1982. Then Mirza Tahir Ahmad - Mirza Nasir’s cousin (i.e. Tahir Ahmad son of Bashir Ahmad son of Ghulam Ahmad) became the leader of the Movement, and is still in the office. It should be mentioned that Ghulam Ahmad had two sons from his second wife, whose names were: Mirza Bashir al-Din Mahmood Ahmad, who became the Qadiani leader, Mirza Bashir Ahmad (the second son), wrote the book Sireh-al-Mahdi, a detailed biography of Ghulam Ahmad, and (finally), Mirza Sharif Ahmad. The present Qadiani leader, Mirza Tahir Ahmad, is the son of Mirza Bashir Ahmad, and has written a book titled al-Qatl bi-sam-e al-Din (murder with the poison of religion). This book contains discussions rejecting Abul A’la Maududi’s opinion on apostasy, excommunication, and jihad. To him, the death penalty for an apostate is not an Islamic principle. He seriously attacked Imam Khomeini’s fatwa, decree, on Salman Rushdie’s death. He has written, “certainly the meaning of al-riddah, - calling someone an apostate - opposes Islam, and no punishment has been legislated for the one who steps out of Islam….”(9). He considered apostasy an invention by Islamic jurists having been passed on to them from Khawarij.(10) He does not consider blasphemy against the Prophet (S.A.W.) punishable in this world.(11) In chapter nine of his book, he deals with the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and says “Islam was not the goal of Iran’s revolution. In the war between Iran and Iraq, neither of the two countries fought for Islam.”(12) In conclusion he says, “It is my firm belief that Islam and/or any other true religion cannot shed blood in the name of God.”(13) The book was originally published in Urdu in 1962. In 1989 it was revised and rendered into English, and in 1990 its Arabic translation was provided. 5) Qadiyaniyyeh is also called Ahmadiyyieh, a name that has found its way into English books and one (the organizers use) to introduce themselves. This sect, whose center is England, has powerful missionaries and claims to have about ten million faithful followers, of whom about four million live in Pakistan. They are, however, most active in Africa.(14) 6) He challenged the Christian missionaries when they were busy propagating Christianity in India, and wrote Barahin-I Ahmadiyah on this occasion. 7) In his Haqiqat-ul-Mahdi, he (Mirza Tahir Ahmad) has claimed: if it had not been for the fear of the Briton’s sword, he would have already been killed. Therefore, he thanked British government. This connection and attachment continued after Ghulam Ahmad, to the extent that the second Khalifa (successor) of this sect, Bashir Mahmood Ahmad, wrote the book Prince of Wales’ Gift to the King of England, George the 5th, and dedicated it to the king. The present leaders of this sect, however, call themselves opponents of England, America and Israel, and hold that in the past there was no agreement with England, there is not one now either. 8) The points below are ideas of Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani in brief, based on the Introduction to the book Tafsir al-Quran, written by Mahmood Ahmad: 1) Divine Attributes In his al-Qadiyaniyyeh, Ehsan Elahi Zaheer has ascribed the Qadiyaniyyeh (movement) with belief in tajseem - those who believe in the corporeality of God - and tashbeeh(15) - similarity, whereas Mahmood Ahmad’s Tafsir al-Qur’an has this statement: “Similarity between Divine attributes and those of things is external and superficial. For example, “God exists” and “man exists”. The word “exists” does not have the same significance… God’s attributes have no share of the attributes of things or phenomena, whatever they are…. No things and no beings have any real similarity to Him.”(16) In this statement, the word “existence” implies a “homonymy” as it is used by certain theologians, mutakallimin, and gnostics, arifs. The sect cannot be attributed with the notion of corporeality because of a few polysemy words. He also writes, “What is contrary to logic cannot be ascribed to God.”(17) 2) Vision of God “God cannot be seen through sight’s observation. He is essentially different from material things.”(18) 3) Man’s Freedom of Choice “Man is free with regard to his actions; he is free to choose, and responsible. The scope of the choice is, however, limited. Predetermination rules over him to some extent.”(19) 4) The Qur’an “The Qur’an is protected from alterations. No changes have occurred in it.”(20) And according to Aziz Ahmad, they believe in the createdness of the Qur’an.”(21) 5) Finality of Nubuwwat “The Qur’an strongly refutes that Revelation terminates with the Prophet of Islam; God continues speaking to His choice servants.”(22) The Divine Law, Shari’ah, of the Prophet of Islam will subsist until the end of the time, but (meanwhile), certain men who have acquired the light of the Revelation from the Prophet make their appearance as reformers. If there is an increase in impiety and sin, then a Prophet will appear.”(23) 6) Eternal Life in the Hell “Punishment in the Hellfire is not eternal; the most sinful men will achieve salvation after certain punishments.”(24) 7) Religious Duties “Imposing religious duties without explanation is shameful.”(25) 8) Miracles a) “The Qur’an does not ascribe any miracles to the Prophets. It is giving reports from the Unseen world that is the miracles of the Prophets.”(26) b) “The Qur’an has refused to ascribe the prophets with attributes that come from ignorance, such as bringing the dead to life, stopping the sun and the moon, the rivers and the mountains from moving. These are of the same category as stories. What is written in the Qur’an is used in their figurative meanings, not the real ones.”(27) c) This is one of the strange points in Mahmood Ahmad words because his father Ghulam Ahmad had also claimed that he could raise the dead to life, and vice-versa.”(28) 9) Immateriality of Spirit Contrary to philosophers, he does not consider the spirit (soul) to be independent from the body, and holds that “The birth of the spirit (soul) is not independent from the birth of the body. Changes that contribute to the growth of the body cause the spiritual birth too.”(29) 10) Ages of Man “As the Qur’an has stated, before Adam man had been living on the Earth. The man passed through states before the time of Adam (‘s appearance).”(30) 11) Jinn “By the word jinn in the Qur’anic verses, it does not mean invisible beings. This applies to a certain group of men.”(31) 12) Life After Death “After death, man’s spirit finds a different body, suitable for the next world, a body that has particular capabilities to comprehend the beauties of the Divine attributes. Perfect spirits enter a state called paradise, and incomplete ones step into a condition called the Hell, which heals the sick spirits, until all sick spirits enter the paradise. Then the Hell will be taken away. In that world, all pleasures are spiritual.”(32) Certain points of interest in the above book concern: the Noah flood, concerning which he says, “Noah flood did not global,”(33) “Jesus is not a universal Prophet,”(34) and in explaining verses 117-119 of the Qur’an, al-Ma’idah,(35), Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani says, “Jesus is dead and does not live in the heaven.”(36) Did he find such a thing in the verse? 13) Jihad “Islam does not recommend Jihad, and forbids it.” However, it says, “when restraining (yourself) from the war puts the peace in hazard, wage a war. It is forbidden to attack religious localities. When the enemy allows religious activities free, the war should be stopped.” Referring to the above, Aziz Ahmad says, “In a political system, the ruler is rigorously protected. Through this, the prohibition of Jihad becomes meaningful.”(37) It should be mentioned that the Qadiyaniyyeh sect believe in canonical prayers, salat, fasting and other ritual acts.(38) Therefore, Ehsan Elahi Zaheer is not right in thinking that the annual gathering of Qadiyaniyyeh people at Qadiyan is their hajj ritual. Qadiyan is indeed a place of esteem for them as Medinah is for Muslims. They pay ten percent zakat for agricultural products and two and half percent for commercial activities.(39) Moneylending, gambling and intoxicating drinks are forbidden.(40) 14) Hadhrat Isa (Jesus) - p.b.u.h. survived crucifixion but lost consciousness and was brought down. Once his wounds were cured, he went to India, and sometime later died a natural death. Jesus’ (p.b.u.h.) grave is in Srinagar, close to Punjab, Kashmir. He did not accept Christians’ belief that Jesus would be resurrected at the close of the Age. Therefore, he (Ghulam Ahmad) interpreted the traditions on the return of Jesus Christ, saying that by “the return”, it did not mean Jesus himself, but someone similar to Jesus, his epiphany.(41) Because Christians had excessively gone astray and people had deviated from the true religion, and because of the global corruption and oppression, God informed Jesus of his people’s subversion. When Jesus (p.b.u.h.) learned that his people would kill all the inhabitants of the Globe and lead them astray from the path of Truth, he became worried and asked God for a deputy (so they would) help the oppressed - one to be united with and similar to his truth and substance, and of the same hue as his body limbs and organs. God chose Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani as Jesus’ deputy, so he would break the Cross to which Christians pay homage, and kill the swine.(42) 15) Ghulam Ahmad considers as weak the traditions that introduce the Promised Mahdi as a son of Fatimeh, the Prophet’s daughter. Based on the traditions some Sunni books have quoted, Ghulam Ahmad does not consider these traditions as valid, and believes that Mahdi and Jesus are the same.(43) 16) As for his being divinely appointed,Ghulam Ahmad has made various claims in different circumstances. First, without claiming to be a prophet, he said that he was receiving inspirations from God. Later, he said that once every hundred years, God appoints someone to renew the religion of this community.(44) Then, he claimed that just as nubuwwat was sealed with the Prophet of Islam, the chain of wilayah came to an end with him. He introduced himself as Khatam-e Awliya (the seal of awliyas), saying that there would be no wali, guardian, after him, except the one who would be following the covenant he (Ghulam Ahmad) has set.(45) He believes that just as with the chains of khilafat, in Bani Israel, there will be khilafat (successorship) in Islam. Because God has not informed him, he does not know the name of the previous khalifas. However, he has faith in them.(46) So far, he did not claim to be a prophet, but called himself muhaddith (the one who is an authority in hadith) and kalim Allah (the one who conversed with Allah).(47) Sometime later, he claimed that the angel of revelation would descend upon him. The (communication of) the revelation would take as much time as it took to be conveyed to the Prophet of God.(48) In the final stage, he believed that divine grace demanded that a prophet or a muhaddith be appointed to render service to the Divine religion at the time of need, that is, when the world is filled with unrighteousness and immorality. He thought he was the appointed prophet.(49) By the word “Seal of prophethood” Ghulam Ahmad means “the excellences of prophethood”. He conceived himself fully obedient to the Qur’an and the Prophet’s Shari’ah.(50) 17) The Ahmadiyah community holds that the command to wage Jihad is a particularity of the early days of Islam, because Muslims were few and to protect themselves they had to fight and kill their enemies.(51) The time to fight by using the sword is over. Now, it is the time to fight with the pen and da’wa (inviting). That is the reason Imam Mahdi will not use sword against unbelievers.(52) 18) In congregational prayer, it is forbidden to say your prayers behind a non-Ahmadiyyah prayer leader.(53) It is forbidden to marry a daughter to a non-Ahmadiyyah. An Ahmadiyyah man may, however, marry a non-Ahmadiyyah girl. 19) It is forbidden to perform funeral prayers for a non-Ahmadi(54). The followers of Ahmadiyyah should pay a percentage of their property as zakat. There are conditions for calling someone an apostate.(55) Ghulam Ahmad’s doctrinal points concerning Hadhrat Masih - Jesus - p.b.u.h., the Promised Mahdi (May God hasten his reappearance), his claim for a special mission given him by God to renew Islam, as well as other beliefs and claims do not agree with Muslims’ tenets of religious doctrine. As a result, all Islamic sects have rejected his claims, and hundreds of books and essays have been written, fatwas have been issued, speeches have been made and gatherings have been formed opposing this sect in most Islamic countries. Among the books that have been published mention can be made of: (al-Qadiyani wa al-Qadiyaniyyeh by a group of Ulama in Pakistan,) Daf’I Awham, Towzih al-Maram fi Ridd aala-al-Qadiyyaniah (by Shaykh Sulaiman Zahir ‘Ameli), Mawgif al-Ummah al-Islamiyyeh min al-Qadiyyaniah (by a group of author), and …. Therefore, if someone from Ahmadiyyah sect accepts the claims Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani has made with regard to Prophethood, nubuwwat, he is a kaffir, disbeliever.(56)


(1). For Punjab and its changes, see “Danesh nameh Jahan Islam (Encyclopedia of the World of Islam), vol., 5, pp. 640-763, which is a translation of the entry “Punjab” as appearing in Encyclopedia of Islam. Also, see “Dae’ratul Ma’arif Tashayyu” (Encyclopedia of Shi’ism), vol. 3, pp. 623-625, by Mashaykh Faridani. (2). Taryaq al-Qulub, p. 15 as quoted by (the book) al-Qadiani and Qadiyaniyyeh, pp. 213-218, and 276-285. (3). Daf’i Awham Towzih al-Maram fil-rad-e ‘al- Qadiyaniyyah, p. 19. (4). Aryieh (also Ariyah) Samaj (the Movement for the Revival of Hindu Rituals) was founded by Saraswati in 1875. He stood in opposition to polytheism and idolatry, and the decadent tendencies to Jukis that had belief in the return of the Veda. He set as his second aim the defense of Hinduism against other religions, and held that India’s Arya Race should overcome other races. He called his movement, the Aryeh Samaj (Aryaii Community) which quickly spread across India. It bore the most animosity towards Islam and Muslims, considering them their main enemies. The two Hindu extremist parties, Hindu Mahasabha and R.S.S., derived from Aryeh Semaj, one of whose aims was Shuddhi, that is, changing Muslims religion. These two parties were active in demolishing Babri mosque. See: Hinduism, Contemporary Thought in India and Hindu Nationalism. (5). Maududi, Ma hiya al-Qadiyanieh, (Qadiani Problem) pp. 21-37. Also see item 5 on Qadiyyanieh doctrines, titled “the finality of Nubuwwah”. (6). He was in بهيره ,Shahpur province, Punjab, in 1941 C.E. His father was the prayer leader of Bhera mosque. Nur-ud-Din, who was a teacher of Persian literature, left this sect to acquire Islamic knowledge, and travelled to various countries including Hejaz. He then returned to India as a distinguished physician, a Hakim. He has authored books including Fasl al-Khitab in four volumes, Tasdiq al-Barahin Ahmadiyyah, and others. The book Mrqat al-Yaqeen fi Hayat-e Nur-ud-Din, written by Najib Abadi and published by Isha’at-ul-Islam Society, Lahoor, is about him. (7). He has authored the book al-Nubuwwa fi al-Islam. He has also translated the Qur’an into English - a translation that was highly welcomed in India (See ‘An Intellectual History of Islam In India’, Aziz Ahmad) and the following link: (8). An Introduction to the Study of the Holy Qur’an, pp. 592-595. (9). Al-Qatl bi-ism-e al-Din, p. 72. (10). Ibid, p. 77. (11). Ibid, p. 103. (12). Ibid, p. 119. (13). Ibid, p. 131. (14). See (Mircea Eliade) Encyclopedia of Religion, Ahmadiyyeh, vol.1, p. 153; Ghulam Ahmad: The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam. (15). Al-Qadiyani wa al-Qadiyaniyyeh, p. 326, collected by Sayyid abd-al-Majid al-Quri, a publication of ibn-al-Kathir. (16). Introduction to the Study of the Holy -Qur’an, pp. 55o-552. (17). Introduction to the Study of the Holy -Qur’an, p. 528. (18). Ibid, p. 556. (19). Ibid, pp.520, 523, 582 and 586. (20). Ibid, p. 511. (21). An Intellectual History of Islamic in India, p. 47. (22). Introduction to the Study of the Holy -Qur’an, pp. 166, 167 and 522. (23). Ibid, p. 589. (24). Ibid, pp. 525 and 559. (25). Ibid, p. 527. (26). Ibid, p. 529. (27). Ibid, pp. 533-34. (28). See Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 1, p. 301. This statement has not been properly translated in Daneshnameh Iran wa Islam Encyclopedia. (29). Introduction to the Study of the Holy -Qur’an, pp. 545-547. (30). Ibid. p. 578. (31). Ibid, p. 579. (32). Ibid, p. 588. (33). Ibid, p. 22. (34). Ibid, pp. 26 -30, and 183. (35). “And (also) on that day Allah will state, ‘O, Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say to men: take me and my mother for two Gods apart from Allah?’ He will say, ’You are Pure and Exalted from having partners. It is not for me to say what is not right.” The Qur’an, Al-Ma’idah/Surah 5 verses 116-119. (36). Ibid, p. 189. (37). An Intellectual History of Islam in India. (38). Introduction to the Study of the Holy -Qur’an, pp. 527 and 538. (39). Ibid, p. 539. (40). Ibid, pp. 540 and 544. (41). Rouhani, Khaza’in, Mawahib al-Rahman, vol. 19, pp. 297- 301. (42). Rouhani, Ayeneh Kamalat-e Islam, vol. 5, p. 499. (43). Rouhani, Khaza’in, Haqiqat al-Mahdi, vol. 14, p. 455. (44). Ibid, vol, 14, pp. 59-60. (45). Ibid, vol. 6, p. 69. (46). Ibid, p. 76. (47). Ibid, vol. 5, p. 387. (48). Ibid, vol. 18, p. 202. (49). Ibid, vol. 14, p. 468. (50). Ibid, vol. 19, p. 285. (51). Ibid, vol. 14, p. 453. (52). Ibid, p. 475. (53). Al-Qadiyyani wa al-Qadiyyaniah, p. 39. (54). Mawgif al-Ummah al-Islamiyyeh min al-Qadiyaniyyeh, p. 46. (55). See (56). See Imam Khomeini’s Tahrir al-Wasileh, vol. 1, p. 118, the first edition, printed by Dar al-Ilm Publications, Qum. ---------------------- Feedback Team for website in AhlulBayt (a.s) Portal

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