Question:
Assalaam un Alaikum, Respected Sirs, I always write to you with lots of hope and I have been helped by you earlier also. Thanks. Jazakallah khaira. Now, I need the following: 1) Vide reference Al-Munammaq fi Akhbari Quraish, 437, Lady Umm-ul-Banin, mother of Hazrat Abbas ibne Ali ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) wrote the following verses: I seek the guard of the One (God) for him From the eye of every envious - Including the rising one and those who sit The Muslims and the unbelievers The comers and the goers And sons and fathers Kindly provide the Arabic text of the verses and reference. 2) An article in English is compiled based on the following references: Mulla Bashir Rahim: The History and Philosophy of Aza of Imam Hussain Shaikh Abbas al-Qummi: Mafatih al-Jinan (Urdu translation) Shaikh Abbas al-Qummi: Nafasul Mahmum Therein it is written Lady Ummul Baneen (mother of Hazrat Abbas ibne Ali ibne Abi Talib (a.s.)) famously has written an elegy as follows: Whoever has seen the courageous advances of Abbas And along with him were the brave sons of Haidar I heard that he lost his arms, and his head was wounded O Lord, how did my son fall on the ground with no arms to break his fall? Were it that he had a sword, no one would have dared approach him Don't call me the Mother of Her Sons anymore This title reminds me of those Haidari lions As long as my sons were alive, I was Ummul Baneen Now that I have lost them, this title doesn't suit me Those four sons of mine were like four lions The ones who sleep in the desert after giving their heads Whoever faced them in the midst of the battlefield Surely would have fallen to the ground like rain How I wish someone had come and informed me That the arms of my Abbas were brutally severed Kindly provide the Arabic text of the verses and reference. 3) a) With regards to Hazrat Abbas (a.s.) it is stated that: “He has fully tasted the knowledge”. b) In this regard, it is further stated that Abd al-Razzaq writes in his book Al-Abbas (p. 163) that the infallible Imam said: "Abbas ibn Ali (PBUT) has comprehended the knowledge completely." c) Vide reference Tanqih al-Maqaal, vol. 2, p. 128, it is further stated that “Abbas (PBUH) was among the learned scholar of the Imams' children who was just, trusted and pious”. d) Referring to Qayeni it is stated that “Abbas (PBUH) was among the intellectuals and scholars of Ahl al-Bait (PBUT)”. Please let us know which Imam said "Abbas ibn Ali (PBUT) has comprehended the knowledge completely." Also, please let us know any hadith which has been narrated through Hazrat Abbas (a.s.) or please provide us any instances which reflects the depth of knowledge he had. 4) A hadith from Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a) "Hubbul Watan nisful emaan" "Love of nation is half of faith". Some say that the hadith is in book Mustadrak Safinatul Bihar, Ayan ul Shia. Kindly provide the Arabic text and reference of this hadith. Also, if possible, please explain the hadith. Thanking you in anticipation, Yours in faith, Was-salaam, Shabib Zaidi.

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Answer:
Reply to Question One: 1. وقالت أم البنين الوحيدية تزفن ابنها العباس بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهما السلام: (الرجز) أعيذه بالواحد من عين كل حاسد قائم والقاعد مسلمهم والجاحد صادرهم والوارد مولودهم والوالد (1) 2. قولها رضى الله عنها: يا من رأى العباس كر على جماهير النقد ووراه من أبناء حيدر كل ليث ذي لبد انبئت أن ابني اصيب برأسه مقطوع يد ويل على شبلي أما ... ل برأسه ضرب العمد لو كان سيفك في يد... يك لما دنا منه أحد (2) وقولها : لا تدعوني ويك ام البنين تدكرينى بليوث العرين كانت بنون لي ادعى بهم واليوم أصبحت ولا من بنين أربعة مثل نسور الربى قد واصلوا الموت بقطع الوتين تنازع الخرصان أشلائهم فكلهم أمسى صريعا طعين يا ليت شعرى اكما أخبروا بأن عباسا قطيع اليمين (3) Sorry! We could not find the article you had requested, but the following articles might be useful: 3. أ. قال الشبر في کتابه المسمي ب"عباس بن علي عليه السلام" :وهو من فقهاء اهل البيت وكفاه شهادة ابيه له بقوله : ان ولدي العباس زُقّ العلم زقا. (4) ب. دعاه أبوه(ع) في عهد الصبا وأجلسه في حجره وقال له: " قل واحد! فقال: واحد، فقال له: قل إثنين! قال: استحي أن أقول باللسان الذي قلت واحداً إثنان" Reply to Question 3 In his book “Abbas ibn ‘Ali (p.b.u.h.)”, Shibr has said, “He (al-Abbas), peace be upon him, was a faqih - specialist in religious law - among Ahlul Bayt (a.s); and the sufficient evidence for this is his father’s words " ان ولدي العباس زُقّ العلم زقا"؛ “Surely, my son, al-Abbas, has fully tasted knowledge”. "قل واحد! فقال: واحد، فقال له: قل إثنين! قال: استحي أن أقول إثنين باللسان قلت واحداً إثنان". (5) When al-Abbas (a.s.) was not yet of age, Imam Ali (a.s.) asked him to say one! …. He said, one! ….. Then Imam Ali (a.s.) told him to say two! …… He replied “I feel embarrassed to say two with the same tongue that once uttered ‘one’! The above narrative indicates that Hazrat ‘Abbas (a.s.) had full knowledge of the Divine Unity, tawhid, and was so obedient to God, the Mighty and Majestic, that even at an early age by opting the word Wahid, he not only mentioned God’s Oneness, but knew that His Oneness is not of numerical category. He believed God, the Almighty, to be Unique, before whom such things as three and four… etc. do not exist. 4. حب الوطن من الايمان “Love of the Country is a sign of Belief (Iman)" A) Shi’ite Sources of the Hadith: *) The Following Sources contain this Hadith in Mursal Manner: 1. روض الجنان و روح الجنان في تفسير القرآن (6) 2. الكشكول للشيخ بهاء الدين العاملي (7) 3. الشهاب في الحكم و الآداب (8) 4. أعيان الشيعة (9) 5. تحف العقول للحسن بن شعبة 6. مستدرک سفينة البحار (10) 7. مقدمه أمل الآمل (11) 8. سفينة البحار (12) 9. شرح دعاء أبي حمزة الثمالي (13) 10. ميزان الحكمة (14) 11. ضيافة الإخوان و هدية الخلان لآقا رضي الدين محمد بن الحسن القزويني ذكر في أوله حديث حب الوطن من علائم الإيمان و شرحه، (15) 12. جعل بعض الفقهاء هذا الحديث مبني لاستنباط حکم فقهي کما في التنقيح الرائع لمختصر الشرائع (16) 13. خزائن ملا احمد نراقي (17) 14. تفسير منهج الصادقين (18) B) Sunnite Sources containing the tradition in question are many, of which some are mentioned below: 1) Marzban-Namah is the oldest book in which this narrative was found. (19) 2) Matla’ al-Budoor wa Manazil al-Surur (20) 3) Kashf al-Khifa wa Mazil al-Ilbas (21) 4) Bayani al-Ma’ani (22) 5) Tarikh-e Islam (23) Based on the above sources and plenty of citations of the above-mentioned hadith, known to various authors, this tradition can be termed as Mursal because all sources that have quoted it as a tradition, hadith, have quoted it directly from the Prophet (peace be upon him), without naming any intermediary transmitters. However, some taken it to be “probably faked” (24), others have claimed it to be made by Iranians because they lay emphasis on their country. (25) C) Similar traditions: 1. من ايمان الرجل حبّه لقومه. (26) و 2. قال صلى الله عليه و آله : لا يلام الرجل على حبّه لقومه. (27) 3. حُبُّ الوَطَنِ مِن طِيبِ المَولِدِ. (28) 4. الإمام علي (عليه السلام): عمرت البلدان بحب الأوطان (29) 5. عنه (عليه السلام): من كرم المرء بكاؤه على ما مضى من زمانه، وحنينه إلى أوطانه، وحفظه قديم إخوانه. (30) In discussing this narrative, we need to consider the following questions: a) In Islam, is “admiration for the country” (permissible) because it is “Dar-al-Islam” - the homeland of Islam? b) Or is it respected because in Islam “the homeland” essentially deserves respect? - Does this kind of admiration double when the country receives the title Dar-Islam? D) As an introductory point, it should be known that investigation into the concept of “homeland” and “nationality” - as is favored these days by various people - is something recent. (31). References that have been made sometimes concern the “people” and “the race”, sometimes “the climate”, sometimes (the grade of) knowledge and sometimes the Islamic aspect of the country. Certain people have said belief, iman, and love of the country are not concomitants. If love of the country is a sign of belief, disbelievers and hypocrites must feel no love for their homeland. They have thus tried to falsify the chain of the authorities, sanad, of the hadith, appropriating it to the one’s hometown in the Hereafter. But as we said, the sanad of this hadith is acceptable, taken together. We will now see if “the love for one’s country” is religiously justified or not. There are traditions in which the word iman accompanies other phrases. For example, "البذاذه من الايمان" wearing dresses modestly, that is, avoiding luxury is a sign of belief, “الغيره من الايمان ; A sense of honor and dignity is a sign of belief”, “الحياه من الايمان shyness is a sign of belief” . Can we take all these traditions as false? We should know that iman has different degrees, particularly if it is equated with God-given nature, fitrah, deposited in us. That is why “shyness”, “a sense of honor and dignity”, “love of the country”, etc. are parts of the belief of whoever possesses these qualities. A treacherous, a shameless individual and the one who is without honor and dignity have no faith, or have a faulty belief. It has repeatedly been mentioned in the Qur’anic verses that “banishment” counters values, denoting that “the homeland/watan” itself is essentially a value. Among the verses clearly mentioning this, are verses 8 and 9 of Surah al-Mumtahanah, “Allah does not forbid you having relationship with those who have not fought you on the account of Religion and have not driven you out of your homeland and He does not forbid you from doing good and regarding justice to them. Verily, Allah likes those who consider justice towards other people.” Verse 246 of the holy Qur’an, Chapter al-Baqara reports the same point stated by a group of Bani Israel, “(O, Messenger!) Have you not thought about the dignitaries of the Children of Israil after the time of Mussa? They said to their Messenger, “Appoint for us a king that under him we may fight in Allah’s path while we have indeed been driven out from our homes and taken away from our children?” Some other verses have mentioned “exile” and “banishment” as a punishment for certain sins. This indirectly implies the value of the homeland. The holy Prophet (S.A.W.) applied it in cases of criminals. (32) On the other hand, facilities have been foreseen for those people who are far from their home. (33) When the holy Prophet (S.A.W.) wanted to migrate from Mecca, he was very troubled. It is true that Mecca had an exceptionally spiritual and divine worth, but there were other reasons for the love the Prophet (S.A.W.) felt for the town. It was his birthday place. So God, the Almighty, comforted him by revealing to him the verse: “…Most surely He Who has made the Quran binding on you will bring you back to the destination.” (28:85) Basically, man is firmly bond to his homeland, materially and spiritually, and his life history is inseparably linked with his it. This attachment produces in him the love for his homeland. This love is itself a motive to safeguard and develop his home. The aforementioned verses confirm this viewpoint. For example, Imam ‘Ali (p.b.u.h.) says, “عمرت البلدان بحبّ الأوطان”; “Towns populate and prosper through the love people have for their homeland”. Also, "من كرم المرء بكائه على ما مضى من زمانه و حنينه الى أوطانه،" “Among signs of man’s worth are the tears he (remorsefully) shed for the days he neglected (doing what pleases God, the Almighty), and the love he has for his homeland.” One’s hometown is usually where his ancestors and kinsmen used to live. One may love one’s homeland because of the love he feels for his/her relatives - and in Islamic Shari’ah this has also been counted as a praiseworthy act. That is why in Islamic traditions showing kindness to one’s family and relatives has been given primacy over loving others (34). Ancient physicians, too, took notice of the effect of the love of homeland when treating patients. Galen has said, "يتروح المريض بنسيم ارضه کما تتروح الارض الجدبة ببل المطر" Hippocrates has said, “Patients feel comfortable and cheerful inhaling their hometown breeze in the same way that a dry land is animated when it receives the rain”. "يداوي کل عليل بعقاقير ارضه، فإن الطبيعة تنزع الي غذائها." (35) Each and every patient could be treated with the herbs from their homeland. This is because every human being is (naturally) inclined to the food in their own homeland. Islamic gnostics and suffis have taken “the homeland” - stated here - to mean the Real World - the Higher Worlds - so called ‘Alam ‘Alavi = عالم علوي . a) Shaykh Baha al-Din ‘Ameli says: وإياك أن تفهم من الوطن دمشق وبغداد وما ضاهاهما، فإنهما من الدنيا، وقد قال سيد الكل في الكل صلوات الله وسلامه عليه: حب الدنيا رأس كل خطيئة فاخرج من هذه القرية الظالم أهلها وأشعر قلبك قوله تعالى: " ومن يخرج من بيته مهاجراً إلى الله ورسوله ثم يدركه الموت فقد وقع أجره على الله وكان الله غفوراً رحيماً " (36) “Do not ever equate “the homeland” - mentioned in this tradition - with Damascus, Baqad and similar cities. The Prophet (S.A.W.) has said, “Love of the world is the ultimate of all offences. So leave this township whose people are evil-doers and make your heart know that “and whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, then his reward is surely with Allah and Allah is the Merciful Forgiving.” (Al Nissa /Surah 4, verse 101) Prior to him, Suhrwardi, ‘Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani, and Jalal ad-Din Mawlvi have also mentioned the same point. Augustine says: Heaven is the common home of all Christians (37). Although Suffis allude to “the Higher World” as man’s real abode, they speak about man’s love for his terrestrial homeland, too, as exemplified in Hafiz’s poems and ‘Ayn al-Quzat’s words. What is blameworthy are: Inappropriate prejudice, arrogant disposition, feeling of superiority and nationalism in its negative sense. “Love of the homeland” which broadly means making effort for solving the problems of one’s countrymen, for bringing prosperity to the land and for expanding of the public welfare are praiseworthy as is explained in Qur’anic verses and traditions. Besides these, love of the country is something logical and agrees with the dictum of intellect too because it is caused by the stimulus one has within, i.e. self-preservation. Discussions concerning “love of the homeland” are indeed an investigation into the causes and effects of love in its general sense. Allamah Tabatabaii says, “The Islamic country’s boundaries are not the so-called geographical and natural limits, but are belief ones. Islam has cancelled the idea that racial branching affects the formation of societies. (38) This is because “bedouinism” and “desert dwelling” are two real factors at work in clan formation. Desert life is “tribal” characteristically. Clans may also form because of differences there are in regions and “homes” chosen to settle. Bedouinism and regional differences in temperature and abundance or lack of bounties have also contributed to the establishment of tribes and clans, and the resulting differences in languages, skin colors and places of residence. The more powerful and the braver people chose the more extensive piece of land and the weaker ones the smaller one, calling it their “homeland/watan”, which they loved and defended with all their might. Although these have all come about because of man’s natural needs, that is, it was his natural character and capability, fitrah, that urged man to establish boundaries, a non-natural necessity has also stepped in. Explanation: Nature demands that mankind all gather together in one place and that isolated forces be united and strengthened through concentration in order for humans to attain their goals quicker. This is self evident. In the world of nature, we can see that a genuine element joints another element and becomes a compound through concentration. Through concentration, a few compounds produce a certain body, then a plant, then an animal, and finally a human being, whereas branching at home brings about a different outcome: the more united and the more concentrated people become the more they distance themselves from other human communities. When united, they become “one” whose body and soul is disconnected from other “ones” in the homeland. The outcome will be disunity. Concentration will give its place to discord and mankind will suffer divergence which he had tried to avoid by gathering together and by establishing one community. The newborn “one” will begin to deal with “individuals” in the same way as he dealt with other existent beings in the world: taking other humans and societies into its service and employing them as if they were animals, and what else it would do. (39) A noteworthy point: When one’s religious system and belief is being endangered, man should migrate from his home, as stated in verse 97 of the Holy Nissa Chapter of the Qur’an: “Verily while the Angels (of death) take away the soul of those who did wrong to themselves, they (the Angels) ask them: ‘in what state were you in the world?’ They shall reply: ‘We were weakened and oppressed on the earth.” The Angels will say: “Was not the land of Allah vast enough for you to migrate therein?” For such people their abode is the Hell, and what an evil destination! (40). The Qur’an urges (Muslims) to acquire Qur’anic knowledge, saying that a group of Muslims should bear the hardship there is in being far from their homeland in order to teach others the sciences of religion (41) (42) It is thus probable that of the various meanings of the hadith “Love of the Country is a sign of Belief (Iman)” is that man should strive to pure his hometown from the dross of ignorance and destruction. If he is unable to and sees that his belief system is being threatened, he should migrate (43). Imam ‘Ali (peace be upon him) says. “لَيْسَ بَلَدٌ بأَحَقَّ بِكَ مِنْ بَلَدٍ، خَيْرُ الْبِلاَدِ مَا حَمَلَكَ The best city is the one that accepts (and welcomes) you (materially and spiritually) - though man naturally loves the homeland of his ancestors.

Refrence:

(1). البغدادي محمد بن حبيب، المنمق في اخبار قريش، المکتبة مدرسة الفقاهة، ص351. (2). ابومخنف، لوط بن يحيي، مقتل الحسين عليه‌السلام؛ محشي: غفاري، حسين، ناشر: المطبعة العلمية، قم۱۳۹۸ ق. = ۱۹۷۷م. = ۱۳۵۶ ؛ ص 181. (3). ابومخنف؛ همان، ص 181. (4). شبّر جواد، أدب الطّف أو شعراء الحسين عليه السلام، المکتبة مدرسة الفقاهة، ج 1، ص 224. (5). المقرم عبد الرزاق، العبّاس (عليه السلام)، المکتبة مدرسة الفقاهة، ص155. نقلا عن مستدرك الوسائل 15: 215، مقتل الحسين للخوارزمي 1: 179. (6). ابوالفتوح رازى، روض الجنان و روح الجنان في تفسير القرآن، ج ۵، ص ۷۴. (7). البهاء العاملي، الکشکول، جلد: 1، صفحه: 153. (8). يحيي بن عشيره بحراني، الشهاب في الحکم و الآداب، جلد: 1، صفحه : 96. (9). السيد محسن الأمين، أعيان الشيعه، الجزء: 1، صفحة : 296. (10). نمازي شاهرودي، علي، مستدرك سفينة البحار، قم: مؤسسة النشر الاسلامي لجماعة المدرسين بقم المشرفة، 1419 ق؛ ج 10 ، ص375. (11). حر عاملي، محمد بن حسن، امل الآمل، نجف اشرف: بي نا، 1404 ق؛ ج1 ص11. (12). سفينة البحار، ج ۲، ص ۶۶۸. (13). الشيخ علي الأحمدي الميانجي، شرح دعاء أبي حمزة الثمالي، جلد: 1، صفحه : 255. (14). محمدي الريشهري، ميزان الحكمة، جلد: 4، صفحه : 3566. (15). الذّريعة إلى تصانيف الشّيعة ط اسماعيليان نويسنده: الشيخ آقا بزرك الطهراني، جلد: 15، صفحه : 132. (16). الفاضل مقداد، التنقيح الرائع لمختصر الشرائع، الجزء: 3 صفحة: 245 و 246. (17). نراقى، ملا احمد، خزائن، محقق و مصحح: حسن زاده آملي، حسن، ص 487 و 528، مؤسسه انتشارات قيام، ‏تهران، چاپ اول، 1380ش. (18). کاشاني فتح الله، منهج الصادقين في الزام المخالفين، تهران: کتابفروشي محمد حسن علمي، 1336ش، ج8، ص343. (19). مرزبان بن رستم‏ (متوفي 302ق)، مرزبان نامه، تعريب: عرب شاه، شهاب الدين أحمد بن محمد، ص 178، مؤسسة الإنتشارات العربي، بيروت، چاپ اول، 1997م.‏ (20). الغزولي، مطالع البدور ومنازل السرور، الجزء: 1، صفحة: 307. (21). عجلوني الجراحي، اسماعيل بن محمد، کشف الخفاء و مزيل الالتباس عما اشتهر من الاحاديث علي السنة الناس، بيروت: دار الکتب العلمية، 1408 ق. ج 1، ص 345. (22). آل غازي، ملا حويش عبدالقادر، بيان المعاني، دمشق: مطبعة الترقي، 1382 ق؛ ج 2، ص 404. (23). ذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن احمد، تاريخ الاسلام، چ 2، بيروت: دار الکتاب العربي، 1409 ق، ج 40 ، ص 60. (24). الشحود، علي بن نايف، موسوعة الرد علي المذاهب الفکرية المعاصرة، بي جا: بي نا، بي تا؛ ج49 ص 7. و نيز براي اقوال مختلف در اين حديث بنگريد: رحيمي، مرتضي؛ بررسي حديث حب الوطن من الايمان، علوم قرآن و حديث، حديث پژوهي - پاييز و زمستان 1393 - شماره 12. (25). رک: شفيعي کدکني، تلقي قدما از وطن، مجله بخارا، شماره 75- فروردين- تير 1389. (26). مستدرك سفينة البحار، جلد: 10 ، صفحه: 375 و أمل الآمل، جلد: 1، ص11. (27). الفصول المهمة في معرفة الائمة، نويسنده: علي بن محمد بن أحمد المالكي المكي، جلد:1، صفحه: 209. (28). تفسير ابوالفتوح رازى، ج ۵، ص ۷۴. (29). ميزان الحكمة، جلد: 4، صفحه: 3567. (30). همان، صفحه: 3566. (31). شفيعي کدکني، همان. (32). المزيني، علي عائش، حب الوطن عند النبي و اصحابه، المدينة المنورة، شوال- ذي الحجة 1427- العدد 19. (33). از جمله قصر نماز ها، اسقاط تکليف صوم و نماز جمعه. (34). رک: الخطيب، محمد ابراهيم، حب الوطن نظرة اسلامية، منبر الاسلام - صفر 1414 العدد2. (35). رک: الزهور، في حدائق العرب: حب الوطن؛ السنة الرابعة- ابريل 1913- العدد 34. (36). الكشكول نويسنده: البهاء العاملي، جلد: 1، صفحه : 153. (37). رک: شفيعي کدکني؛ همان. (38). يعنى اجازه نمى دهد صرف اينکه جمعيتى در قوميت واحدند، باعث آن شود که آن قوم از ساير اقوام جدا شوند. (39). ترجمه تفسير الميزان نويسنده: سيد محمد حسين طباطبائي، جلد: 4، صفحه : 197. (40). {إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلآئِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ قَالُواْ فِيمَ كُنتُمْ قَالُواْ كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الأَرْضِ قَالْوَاْ أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُواْ فِيهَا فَأُوْلَئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَسَاءتْ مَصِيرًا}. (41). التوبه، آيه 122. (42). براي ديدن روايات اين باب مراجعه کنيد به: المزيني، همان. (43). رک: رحيمي، همان. ----------------------------- Feedback Team for Q&A website in AhlulBayt (a.s) Portal


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