There is Wajib e Kifai, Wajib e Ikhtiyari, Ehtiyat e Wajib, etc. in case of wajibat. Please let us know the different types of wajibat, mustahabat, makroohat and haraam acts along with the meaning and short explanation.

Visit count: 2170    Category: Discussions on Principles of Jurisprudence         
Types of Wajib: Wajib ‘ayni (واجب عيني), a kind of wajib which is obligatory for everyone individually, irrespective of others, like prayer and fast. If one performs it, others will not be relieved of the obligation. It is the opposite of wajib kafai (واجب کفايي) which is not obligatory to others if a sufficient number of people do it, such as performing Ghusl and other rituals of a dead Muslim’s body. Wajib ta'yini (واجب تعييني) is where the incumbency is determined (a determined wajib) such as prayers, fast and Hajj. In case of a determined wajib, there is nothing that can replace it. It is the opposite of Wajib Takhyiri (واجب تخييري) where one is free to adopt one of many obligations like Kaffarah (penalty) of not performing fast, which can be chosen out of three alternations: (1) Setting a slave free; (2) Sixty days of fasting; (3) giving enough food to sixty poor persons. If one does one of these obligations, he has discharged himself of the obligation and will no longer be bound to do anything. Wajib Ta'abbudi (واجب تعبُّدي) is an incumbency where a wajib act is done with the intention (Niyyat) of getting closer to Allah. For instance, if prayer is offered and fast is observed without the intention of proximity to God, the doer has not discharged himself of the obligation. It is the opposite of Wajib Tawassoli (واجب توسُّلي) where a wajib does not require intention of qurbat (getting closer to Allah) such as repayment of debt or answering Salam and washing clothes and body for the purpose of prayer. Types of Haram: There are various types of Haram. In Islamic jurisprudential sources, several types are mentioned for Halal; however, the types of Haram are mentioned less frequently. These types are mentioned for Haram in Fiqhi sources: Al-Dhati and al-'Aradi: (prohibited independently or by another thing) 1. Al-Haram al-Dhati: (prohibited independently) is an act that is directly prohibited by a religious source (Shar'i proof) such as prohibition of drinking wine. 2. Al-Haram al-'Aradi: (prohibited by another thing) is an action that is not prohibited by itself rather it was prohibited by vowing or swearing an oath, such as vowing to leave a Makruh act. Al-Shar'i and al-'Aqli: (prohibited by religion or reason) 1. Al-Haram al-Shar'i: (prohibited by religion) is an act prohibited by religious source, such as prohibition of lying. 2. Al-Haram al-'Aqli: (prohibited by reason) is an act prohibited only by pure reason, for instance eating something that cause severe harm to body (However, according to the rule: "whatever ordered by reason is ordered by religion" it is religiously Haram, as well.) Al-Nafsi and al-Ghayri: (prohibited for itself or another thing) 1. Al-Haram al-Nafsi: (prohibited by itself) is an act that is prohibited for itself, such as harming other people. 2. Al-Haram al-Ghayri (prohibited for another thing) is an act prohibited because it is a preparation for a Haram act, for instance cultivation of grapes by the intention of making wine. Permanent and Impermanent: 1. Permanent Haram: is an act that is Haram for all the time, such as marrying mother-in-law. 2. Impermanent Haram: is a Haram act that is possible to become Halal, for instance marrying wife's sister is Haram for husband as long as the wife is married to the husband. Haram Transactions: Haram transactions have four categories: 1. Transaction of 'Ayn al-Najis (Najis by itself), such as dog, pig, dead corpse, wine and other intoxicant liquids. It is noteworthy that the ruling is only applied when these things are not bought and sold for Halal and rational purposes, for instance selling blood for using in hospitals or buying dead corpse for dissection. 2. Buying and selling thing that are Haram due to the intention of the parties of transaction or the things that are not used except in Haram, such as gambling tools and items, instrument of Lahwi (diversionary) music, gold and silver dishes, the Cross and idols. Moreover, buying and selling Halal things for Haram purposes is Haram, for instance selling grapes to someone that would use it for making wine. 3. Buying and selling things that are not of any rational use, such as snakes and scorpions. The ruling is only applied when there is no rational use of these things, so if these things have rational use in a special place or time, buying and selling them are Halal in that place and time. 4- Earning money by doing Haram, for instance bribery, insulting a believer, magic and witchery, Ghina, gambling and defrauding. Istihbab: Lexicologically, Istihbab (recommendation) is an Arabic word derived from Hubb (to like) and means to like or to prefer something. The term is used in its lexical meaning in the Qur'an and hadiths. In jurisprudential terminology, Mustahab refers to an action that according to Islamic laws, doing it is recommended, yet leaving it is permissible. Synonym Terms: Nadb (and Mandub), Nafl (and Nafila), Sunna and Tatawwu' convey a similar meaning to that of Istihbab. Jurisprudential Discussions: In almost all of Shi'a jurisprudential topics, Istihbab is used as one of al-Ahkam al-Khamsa (the Five Ruling Values). In the Principle of Jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh) it is discussed in chapters of al-Awamir (commands), al-Ḍid (opposite) and Muqaddamat al-Wajib (prerequisite of compulsory act). Types: There are different types of Mustahab. Some of the most important ones are: Mustahab al-Nafsi: is a Mustahab due to itself, such as Mustahab prayers and fastings. Mustahab al-Ghayri: is a Mustahab that is not Mustahab due to itself, rather because of another act, such as Ghusl for Ziyarah. Mustahab al-'Ayni: is a Mustahab that is recommended for each individual Muslim. Mustahab Al-Kifa'I: is a Mustahab that if one Muslim do that it is no longer recommended for others, such as Adhan announcing Salat time. Mustahab al-Mu'akkad: a Mustahab that has been emphasized, such as Ghusl al-Jum'a. Related Rulings: when a person starts a mustahab it is makruh to not finish it, like mustahab salat. In some cases, when a mustahab reaches specific stage it is obligatory to finish it and the person is not allowed to leave it. Two well-known examples of this creed are mustahab hajj and 'Umra that if a person starts each of them he must finish it; another example is I'tikaf that if a person starts it and fasts the first two days he must fast the third day.


Feedback Team for Q&A website in AhlulBayt (a.s) Portal

The opinions expressed in this text do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher

Comment Text