Question:
Is this saying of the Sunnite scholars true that the verse of Proclamation has been revealed regarding the Jews’ trick?

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Answer:
Muqatil Ibn Sulayman has been the first person interpreting the verse of Proclamation regarding the Jews’ trick [1], and Tabari, Baghawi and Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr Razi have interpreted it in the same way, after him. [2] And after several probabilities regarding the revelation of the mentioned verse, Fakhr Razi has written the same commentary just because of the proportion of the previous verses to the following ones, which were all about the Jews. [3] In reply to him, we should say that: first, Ma’idah Surah was the last one revealed upon the Prophet (s.a.w.) in Hajjat al-Wida’ -i.e. the last pilgrim of the Prophet (s.a.w.)- and in that time, the Jews were not powerful enough to intimidate the Prophet (s.a.w.) and make him protect (himself) from them, and if the mentioned verse was due to the Jews, the verse should have been revealed in the early of the Immigration (Hijra) because in that time, the Prophet (s.a.w.) was away from home and among a few of the Muslims, where he was surrounded by the Jews -who brought about bloody wars, such as Kheybar- through four ways, so it wouldn’t be possible to conclude that the cause of revelation of the verse of Proclamation has been for the Jews’ trick. Second, the arrangement of the surahs of that Quran was not based on the order of revelation, so it wouldn’t be possible to grasp a meaning based on the order of the verses. Third, if there was an order, it would be Maqami indication, which would be unreliable in comparison with the text of the narratives and other indications. Forth, according to Fakhr Razi, the following is the command which was revealed regarding the Jews and they found it so hard to bear that it made the prophet (s.a.w.) postpone delivering it: ﴿يَا أَهْلَ الْکِتَابِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ حَتَّىَ تُقِيمُواْ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْکُم مِّن رَّبِّکُمْ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ کَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْکَ مِن رَّبِّکَ طُغْيَانًا وَکُفْرًا فَلاَ تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْکَافِرِينَ﴾ [4]'people of the book, you are not upon anything until you establish the Torah and the gospel and that which is sent down to you from your lord. ' and that which is sent down to you (prophet Muhammad) from your lord will surely increase the tyranny and disbelief of many of them. but do not grieve for the unbelieving nation”, meanwhile before this verse, the Jews were addressed more severely in the verse 64 by the Quran: ﴿وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ يَدُ اللهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُواْ بِمَا قَالُواْ بَلْ يَدَاهُ...﴾ [5]the Jews say: 'the hand of allay is chained. ' their own hands are chained! and they are cursed for what they said!...”, it can be concluded that this verse is better for making the Prophet (s.a.w) worried, not the previous one, so the saying of Fakhr Razi cannot be considered to be valid. [6]

Refrence:

[1] Tafsir Muqatil Ibn Sulayman, Vol. 1, p. 491 and 492 [2] Jami’ al-Bayan, Tabari, Vol. 4, p. 307; Tafsir Ma’alim al-Tanzil, Baqhawi, Vol. 2, p. 51; Tafsir As`alah al-Quran al-Majid Wa Ajwabatuha, Razi, p. 74 [3] Mafatih al-Ghayb, Vol. 12, p. 50 [4] Quran, Al-Ma'idah, verse. 68. [5] Quran, Al-Ma'idah, verse. 64. [6] Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and Answering to the Doubts (1), p. 261 ------------------------------ Ref: www.makarem.ir


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