How many groups are the narrations related to the anointment of shoes?

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Cabbalas are in Some Groups: A) Cabbalas which have been quoted in resources of Ahl -e- Bait (a.s.) and they altogether and generally deny anointment on shoes, for instance: 1- Sheikh Toosi quotes from Abi Alward: “I said to Imam Abi Alja’far (Albaqir (a.s.)) that Abu Zubyan says that he saw Ali (a.s.) that affused water and performed anointment on his shoes. He said: Abu Zubyan lies; “Didn’t you hear that Ali (a.s.) said Qur’an (verse of Ma’eda Sura about anointment on the feet) has surpassed on anointment on shoes, I said is there any opportunity for performing anointment on shoes? He said: No! Except that you are in front of an enemy and want to perform Taqiyya or ground has been covered by snow and you fear about your feet”. [1] Some points understand from this Hadith: First: While it is known in cabbalas of Ahl -e- Sonnat that Ali (a.s.) did not accept anointment on shoes, then why Abu Zubyan and others like him let themselves to impute false statement to his holiness, was there any conspiracy in that? We will know the answer of this question later. Second: Ali (a.s.) show the way and says: Holy Qur’an surpasses anything and nothing surpasses Qur’an. If any cabbala is seen against Qur’an, it should be justified and interpreted. And for Ma’eda Sura (the Sura that verse of ablution is there) which its verses have been never invalidated. Third: Imam Baqir also shows the way that if any cabbala about anointment of feet is accepted, should be construed to the cases of necessity like severe cold when there is the fear about the feet. 2- The late Sheikh Sadoogh (also Saduq) quotes in a Hadith from Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) in the book “Man la Yahzaro h Alfaqih”: “We are a dynasty that do not perform anointment on shoes, anyone who is from our followers, follows us and accepts our tradition”. [2] 3- There is a strange definition in another Hadith from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that he said: “Anyone who performs anointment on shoes has opposed Allah and prophet (s.a.) and holy Qur’an and his Ablution is incomplete and his prayer is not rewarded”. [3] By noticing the cabbalas which has been quoted from Ali (a.s.) about the nonexistence of permission of performing anointment on shoes, we remember an expression from Fakhr Raazi who says in the issue of vociferating or whispering “in the name of Allah”, while a group believed on whispering “in the name of Allah” and Amir Almu’mineen Ali (a.s.) believed that vociferating is necessary: “Whenever a person choose Ali (a.s.) as his Imam, then he has grasped an inseparable lug in his religion and himself”. [4] But we go for other cabbalas. B) Cabbalas which permit the anointment on shoes are in two kinds: First group: Cabbalas that permit absolutely to do this, like: Marfu’a (quoted by one of Sahaba from holy prophet (s.a.)) Hadith of Sa’d ibn Abu Waqas from prophet of Allah About ablution (anointment) on feet: أنه لا بأس بالوضوء علي الخفين (There is no problem to perform ablution of feet). [5] It has been quoted in another Hadith which according to Beihaghi has been quoted in Sahih of Bokhari and Sahih of Muslim from Hazifa: مشي رسول الله (ص) ألي سباطة قوم فبال قائماً ثم دعا بماء فجئته فتوضأ و مسح علي خفية We translate Hadith with extreme shame and apology perforce: “Prophet of Allah went to garbage area of a tribe and urinated standing up. Then he asked for water and I (Hazifa) brought him water and he performed ablution and performed anointment on his shoes!!” [6] We are sure that this Hadith is forged and has been made up by some hypocrites for striking the holiness of prophet of Allah (s.a.) and then has found its way to the books like Sahih of Bokhari and Sahih of Muslim (because of naivety of their authors). Does any person who has the least personality perform such an act which has lots of unfavorable instrumentalities that my pen is ashamed of explaining them? How regretful is that, these kinds of cabbalas has been mentioned in Sahih books and still is being referred to them. Anyhow these cabbalas and like them have no conditions for anointment on shoes. Second group: It is understood from these cabbalas that anointment on shoes (if it was permitted) was limited to the cases of necessity, like: A cabbala that Maqdaam ibn Sharih quotes from Ayesha, he said that I asked her about anointment on shoes, she said: Go to Ali (a.s.) who had traveled with prophet of Allah (s.a.), I went to his holiness and asked about this matter, he said: “When we were traveling with prophet of Allah (s.a.) he ordered us to perform anointment on our shoes”. [7] This expression show well that matter of anointment on shoes was for cases of necessity, therefore he says: He ordered us like this in journeys. And other cabbalas like these. Noticing in total cabbalas which have been mentioned in famous resources of Ahl -e- Sonnat, show that without past prejudices: First: According to the known rule in Usul science (science of fundamentals) (rule of conjunction between absolute and confined to confine the absolutes), we should construe cabbalas which permit absolutely to perform anointment on shoes to the cases of necessity, like travel or battlefield or other similar cases, and it is interesting that there is an expanded chapter in Sunan of Beihaghi about the time which is permitted to perform anointment on shoes and cites its limitation to three days in travel and one day in emergency situation with several cabbalas. [8] Aren’t this much of cabbalas clear proof for this fact that all that has been said in cabbalas about anointment on shoes is for cases of necessity and it has no meaning that we do not take off our shoes in normal situation and do not perform anointment on our feet? And the expression that some people say this is for facilitating for nation is not acceptable, because taking normal shoes off has no labor at all. Second: By noticing to several cabbalas from Ali (a.s.) in famous resources of Ahl -e- Bait and Ahl -e- Sonnat that Ali said: This anointment was related to the time before descending of verse 6 of Ma’eda Sura, it shows that if there was any permission, it was for the time before descending of this verse. After descending of this verse, even in battles and travel anointment on shoes had not been permitted, because in case of trouble in taking the shoes off they had performed dry ablution, because the rule of dry ablution has been said completely following that verse. Third: If some persons had been seen prophet (s.a.) at presence who had performed anointment on shoes, it was due to the fact that his shoes had ventilators which it was possible to perform anointment on the feet from between those ventilators. The late Sadoogh one of famous Hadith tellers of Imamiyya says in his famous book “Man la Yahzaro h Alfaqih”: Najashi had presented a gift to prophet of Islam (s.a.) which has ventilators on the vamp. Holy prophet (s.a.) while was wearing the shoes performed anointment on his feet. A group of persons there assumed that his holiness had performed anointment on his shoes. [9] Famous Hadith teller Beihaghi in “Sunan Alkobra” has a Chapter named “Chapter of shoes which prophet of Allah (a.s.) performed anointment on them”, and from some Ahadith of this chapter it is understood that shoes of most of Mohajirin (immigrants) and Ansar (companions) had ventilators on their vamps “And shoes of Mohajirin and Ansar had cracks and fissures”. [10] Therefore it is possible that they also performed anointment on the foot itself. One of wonders of this discussion is that tellers of Ahadith about anointment on shoes are persons who had sometimes the chance of being beside his holiness, but Ali (a.s.) which was always close to Prophet (s.a.) had never accepted this expression according to famous Ahadith of Ahl -e- Sonnat. And more wonderful is that it has been quoted from Ayesha who was often with his holiness that she said: “I prefer that my feet will be cut off, but do not perform anointment on my shoes!” [11].


[1] Tahzib, vol. 1, Hadith 1092. [2] Man la Yahzaro h Alfaqih, vol. 4, p. 415. [3] Wasael Alshi’aa, vol. 1, p. 279. [4] Great interpretation of Fakhr Raazi, vol. 1, p. 207. [5] Alsunan Alkobra, vol. 1, P. 269. [6] The same evidence, p. 270. [7] Alsunan Alkobra, vol. 1, p. 272. [8] Alsunan Alkobra, vol. 1, p. 275 and 276. [9] Man la Yahzaro Alfaqih, vol. 1, p. 48. [10] Alsunan Alkobra, vol. 1, p. 283. [11] mabsout Sarakhsi,vol. 1, p. 98 ------------------------------ Ref: Shia Answers; Ayt. Makarem Shirazi; Translated by: Bahador Shirazian

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